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More than 20 percent of civilians with traumatic injuries may develop PTSD. Trauma surgeons explain why many hospitals aren’t doing anything about it. … Read More »

Date:

March 2014

A growing body of research shows that Americans with traumatic injuries develop PTSD at rates comparable to veterans of war. Just like veterans, civilians can suffer flashbacks, nightmares, paranoia, and social withdrawal. While the United States has been slow to provide adequate treatment to troops affected by post-traumatic stress, the … Read More »

Date:

February 2014

Many young people who are mistreated by an adult, victimized by bullies, criminally assaulted, or who witness domestic violence react to this violence exposure by developing behavioral, emotional, or learning problems. What is less well known is that adverse experiences like violence exposure can lead to hidden physical alterations inside … Read More »

Date:

November 2013

Data suggests that one in 10 older adults in the United States experience physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, neglect, or financial exploitation. Elder abuse violates older adults’ fundamental rights to be safe and free from violence. In low- and middle-income countries, where the burden of violence is the greatest, the … Read More »

Date:

October 2013

In 2012, the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) recorded 32 armed conflicts with a minimum of 25 battle-related deaths. This is a significant decrease from the 37 recorded in 2011. Overall, the 2000s has been the least conflict-ridden decade since the 1970s. A worrying finding, however, is that the number … Read More »

Date:

July 2013

Violence against women that is perpetrated by an intimate partner prevails as one of the most widespread human rights violations in virtually all societies of the world. Women in resource-poor countries, in particular those affected by recent war, appear to be at high risk of experiencing partner violence. Although there … Read More »

Date:

June 2013

This article reviews the articles in this special issue on the effects of intimate partner violence on women and children, integrating the findings into critical questions about intergenerational transmission of violence. The author’s own psychodynamically informed framework is used to interpret the results of the studies. Finally, clinically relevant implications … Read More »

Date:

June 2013

In this 10-year longitudinal study 150 mother-daughter pairs were recruited to participate in a study examining gender-based abuse across three generations. Forms of gender-based abuse included: child sexual abuse, witnessing intimate partner violence against their mothers, and intimate partner violence or dating violence in adolescence or adulthood. Daughters were interviewed … Read More »

Date:

June 2013

BACKGROUND: Violent offending by veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts is a cause for concern and there is much public debate about the proportion of ex-military personnel in the criminal justice system for violent offences. Although the psychological effects of conflict are well documented, the potential legacy of violent … Read More »

Date:

March 2013

So far in the first two months of this year, gun deaths in Chicago have already outpaced last year’s explosive rate. Elizabeth Brackett of PBS member station WTTW explores the escalating public health crisis in Chicago due to the high rates of gun violence. … Read More »

Date:

February 2013

This report presents the results of a comprehensive impact and process evaluation of the anti-violence initiative Save Our Streets, which started in Crown Heights, Brooklyn in 2010. Results demonstrate that the initiative had a statistically significant impact on gun violence trends in Crown Heights when compared with three similar precincts … Read More »

Date:

January 2013

Elder abuse includes several types of violence that occur among those ages 60 and older. This fact sheet provides up-to-date information on the topic. It is intended for the general public. … Read More »

Date:

January 2013

A new infographic, launched jointly by the Departments of Violence and Injury Prevention and Disability, and Reproductive Health and Research in the context of the 66th World Health Assembly, highlights these numbers alongside facts on the severe health and social consequences of intimate partner and sexual violence. … Read More »

Date:

January 2013

Fifteen-year-old adolescents (N=109) in a longitudinal study of child development were recruited to examine differences in DNA methylation in relation to parent reports of adversity during the adolescents’ infancy and preschool periods. Microarray technology applied to 28,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) sites within DNA derived from buccal epithelial cells showed differential … Read More »

Date:

January 2013

In today’s high technological world, scientific discoveries contribute remarkable development to human life, but it could also have an adverse impact on mankind. Among all these advancements, media is one of the inventions which aims at capturing a countless group of viewers and transmit information via various mediums. Media violence … Read More »

Date:

December 2012

Firearm injuries cost $174 billion in the United States in 2010 and the government’s firearm injury bill alone exceeded $12 billion. PIRE researcher Ted Miller estimates annual firearm injury costs average $645 per gun in America.  The costs include medical and mental health care costs, criminal justice costs, wage losses, … Read More »

Date:

December 2012

In the past 25 years, there has been a shift in the field of violence prevention, from the assumption that violence is inevitable to the recognition that violence is preventable. In exploring the occurrence of violence, researchers have recognized the tendency for violent acts to cluster, to spread from place … Read More »

Date:

October 2012

Violence is a contagious disease. It meets the definitions of a disease and of being contagious-that is, violence is spread from one person to another. This paper will clarify (1) how violence is like infectious diseases historically by its natural history and by its behavior; (2) how violence specifically fits … Read More »

Date:

October 2012

Neuroimaging provides robust evidence to demonstrate the functional and structural deficits in childhood and adult survivors of child maltreatment. These deficits mirror the neurocircuitry involved in parenting. Despite this, research into the mechanisms behind the intergenerational transmission of abuse fails to acknowledge the contribution of brain development on future parenting … Read More »

Date:

September 2012

Rates of exposure to various forms of violence … Read More »

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January 2012

This 2-page fact sheet provides a basic overview of intimate partner violence. … Read More »

Date:

January 2012

This 2-page data sheet provides a basic overview of youth violence. … Read More »

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January 2012

Summary of CDC efforts to prevent violence. … Read More »

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January 2012

Fact sheet on sexual violence. … Read More »

Date:

January 2012

Safe Streets was implemented in four of Baltimore’s most violent neighborhoods, engaging hundreds of high-risk youth, promoting nonviolence through community events, and mediating over 200 disputes with the potential to lead to a shooting. The program was associated with less acceptance for using guns to settle grievances in the one … Read More »

Date:

January 2012

Facts of the magnitude of youth violence in the United States. … Read More »

Date:

January 2012

Violence not only causes physical and emotional damage, but also creates a social and economic burden on communities. Measuring these costs can be difficult, and most estimates only consider the direct economic effects of violence, such as productivity loss or the use of health care services. Beyond these clear-cut costs, however, … Read More »

Date:

October 2011

The survey documents the scale of sexual, physical and emotional violence during childhood and in the 12 months preceding the survey, and includes findings for girls and boys. … Read More »

Date:

August 2011

Experiencing, exposure to and fear of violence have known emotional and mental health consequences. These consequences are often lifelong, require extensive treatment, and can, in turn, affect physical health as well as bring stress and consequences to others. … Read More »

Date:

May 2011

Violence and/or the fear of violence have serious implications in terms of school performance, attendance, and graduation. (1) The presence of violence impacts communities, individuals, and community institutions (particularly schools) in ways that interfere with learning and success in academics. … Read More »

Date:

May 2011

A growing body of science is consistently linking violence (the experience with and/or fear of) with risk for and incidence of a range of serious physical health problems. … Read More »

Date:

May 2011

Abuse and neglect are highly prevalent in children and have enduring neurobiological effects. Stressful early life environments perturb the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which in turn may predispose to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. However, studies of childhood maltreatment and adult HPA function have not yet rigorously investigated the differential effects of … Read More »

Date:

March 2011

Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research indicate such … Read More »

Date:

March 2011

Five waves of longitudinal data from a sample of minority youth living in extreme poverty were used to examine the impact of chronic exposure to violence on chronic violent behavior. Given the rapid rate of developmental change during adolescence and the lack of multiyear studies of exposure to violence, semiparametric … Read More »

Date:

October 2010

Some here joke that they might be safer if they lived in Baghdad. The numbers bear them out. In Iraq, a country with about the same population as Venezuela, there were 4,644 civilian deaths from violence in 2009, according to Iraq Body Count; in Venezuela that year, the number of … Read More »

Date:

August 2010

The intergenerational transmission (IGT) of violence has been a main the oretical consideration to explain the link between interparental aggression in the family of origin and intimate partner violence (IPV) in subsequent intimate relationships. Studies have examined this theoretical link based on self reports of interparental violence witnessed during childhood … Read More »

Date:

June 2010

Prior research has indicated an association between exposure to violent media and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior, potentially as a result of effects on inhibitory mechanisms. However, the role of violence in video games in modulating subsequent neural activity related to cognitive inhibition has received little attention. To examine short-term … Read More »

Date:

January 2010

According to the World Health Organization, unintentional injuries were responsible for over 3.9 million deaths and over 138 million disability-adjusted life-years in 2004, with over 90% of those occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). This paper utilizes the year 2004 World Health Organization Global Burden of Disease Study estimates … Read More »

Date:

June 2010

The critical role of social interactions in driving phenotypic variation has long been inferred from the association between early social deprivation and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Recent evidence has implicated molecular pathways involved in the regulation of gene expression as one possible route through which these long-term outcomes are achieved. These … Read More »

Date:

May 2010

This chapter explores the 25% drop in homicides in Chicago in 2004 and lists the plausible causes, including the Cure Violence health model, police strategies, and demographic changes. … Read More »

Date:

March 2010

Objective: To assess trends in children’s exposure to abuse, violence, and crime victimizations. Design: An analysis based on a comparison of 2 crosssectional national telephone surveys using identical questions conducted in 2003 and 2008. Setting: Telephone interview. Participants: Experiences of children aged 2 to 17 years (2030 children in 2003 … Read More »

Date:

March 2010

Background: Intimate-partner violence might increase during and after exposure to collective violence. We assessed whether political violence was associated with male-to-female intimate-partner violence in the occupied Palestinian territory. Methods: A nationally representative, cross-sectional survey was done between Dec 18, 2005, and Jan 18, 2006, by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. … Read More »

Date:

January 2010

Facts on Child Maltreatment … Read More »

Date:

January 2010

This paper summarizes existing high-quality academic research on the cost of crime and the effectiveness of police in preventing crime. It serves as a bridge to help policymakers understand what the current social-science literature can tell them about the value of investments in police. As such, it translates what is … Read More »

Date:

January 2010

This guide outlines the nature, magnitude, risks and consequences of intimate partner and sexual violence. It outlines strategies to prevent these forms of violence against women and presents a sex-step framework for planning, implementing and evaluating prevention policies and programs. It also emphasizes the importance of integrating scientific evaluation into … Read More »

Date:

January 2010

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to obtain national estimates of exposure to the full spectrum of the childhood violence, abuse, and crime victimizations relevant to both clinical practice and public-policy approaches to the problem. METHODS: The study was based on a cross-sectional national telephone survey that involved a target … Read More »

Date:

November 2009

This Bulletin discusses the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), the most comprehensive nationwide survey of the incidence and prevalence of children’s exposure to violence to date, sponsored by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) and supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention … Read More »

Date:

October 2009

Using data from grandparents (G1), parents (G2), and children (G3), this study examined continuity in parental monitoring, harsh discipline, and child externalizing behavior across generations, and the contribution of parenting practices and parental drug use to intergenerational continuity in child externalizing behavior. Structural equation and path modeling of prospective, longitudinal … Read More »

Date:

September 2009

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a prevalent social problem in the United States and women of childbearing age are the most likely victims. The young children born to these women are impacted, however, women are not routinely asked about IPV even when there is evidence that their child has been … Read More »

Date:

August 2009

Currently, behavioral development is thought to result from the interplay among genetic inheritance, congenital characteristics, cultural contexts, and parental practices as they directly impact the individual. Evolutionary ecology points to another contributor, epigenetic inheritance, the transmission to offspring of parental phenotypic responses to environmental challenges-even when the young do not … Read More »

Date:

May 2009

The report presents the findings of an evaluation of CeaseFire, a Chicago-based violence prevention program. The program is administered by the Chicago Project for Violence Prevention (CPVP). Formed in 1999, it began to expand in Chicago and elsewhere in Illinois during the 2000s. At its peak it was active in … Read More »

Date:

March 2009

Violence is now clearly recognized as a public health problem, but just 30 years ago the words “violence” and “health” were rarely used in the same sentence. This publication explores the history of violence and the reasons why it has become a greater focus for public health in recent decades. … Read More »

Date:

January 2009

WHO and Liverpool John Moores University launched Violence prevention: the evidence, an eight-part series of briefings on the evidence for interventions to prevent interpersonal and self-directed violence. By spotlighting evidence for the effectiveness of interventions, Violence prevention: the evidence provides clear directions for how violence prevention funders, policy makers and … Read More »

Date:

January 2009

Chronic pain is a common symptom among adult survivors of family violence. Indeed, it may be one of the most commonly occurring symptoms. This chapter explores the role of biopsychosocial factors in trauma and pain. It also offers a model for treating patients who have experienced family violence and now … Read More »

Date:

January 2009

List of leading causes of death in Chicago in 2006. … Read More »

Date:

January 2009

This document makes the case that violence seriously hampers the development of low- and middle-income countries. It calls for increased attention to, and investment in, violence prevention by development agencies and identifies gaps in their current programming. It recommends a strengthened agenda to prevent violence and reduce its impact in … Read More »

Date:

January 2008

In 1988, the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) of a representative sample of 1200 veterans estimated that 30.9% had developed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during their lifetimes and that 15.2% were currently suffering from PTSD. The study also found a strong dose-response relationship: As retrospective reports of combat exposure … Read More »

Date:

August 2006

Fact sheet on child maltreatment and alcohol … Read More »

Date:

January 2006

Fact sheet on youth violence and alcohol … Read More »

Date:

January 2006

Fact sheet on intimate partner violence and alcohol … Read More »

Date:

January 2006

Our studies focus on the effects of early childhood maltreatment on the developing brain, and the implications for the emergence of psychiatric disorder. We have proposed that early maltreatment produces a cascade of physiological and neurohumoral responses built on the following five fundamental premises. First, that exposure to stress early … Read More »

Date:

January 2006

The United States remains far behind most other affluent countries in terms of life expectancy. One of the possible causes of this life expectancy gap is the widespread availability of firearms and the resulting high number of U.S. firearm fatalities: 10,801 homicides in 2000. The European Union experienced 1,260 homicides, … Read More »

Date:

October 2005

Designed as a field quasi-experiment, this study analyzes the differences in Jewish adolescent crime rates before and after the inception of the second Intifada (September, 2000). Data covers the years between 1996 and 2003. The study focused on the relationship between the number of terrorist acts, the number of deaths … Read More »

Date:

September 2005

Results from examination of the four research investigations indicate that despite difference in geographic region, time period, youths’ ages, definition of child maltreatment, and assessment technique, evidence exists to show a connection between child maltreatment and subsequent crime and delinquency. The findings also show that even though there is a … Read More »

Date:

July 2005

The number of young children who have suffered from maltreatment has risen in recent years. This paper describes the negative neurological, psychological, and cognitive effects from this maltreatment. Interventions that can prevent abuse and neglect and promote resilience in the child victims are examined and discussed. The paper concludes that … Read More »

Date:

June 2005

To estimate the cause-effect relationship between exposure to firearm violence and subsequent perpetration of serious violence, we applied the analytic method of propensity stratification to longitudinal data on adolescents residing in Chicago, Illinois. Results indicate that exposure to firearm violence approximately doubles the probability that an adolescent will perpetrate serious … Read More »

Date:

May 2005

Low-income adult women were interviewed regarding their experiences with intimate partner violence and child maltreatment during childhood and adulthood, and intra- and intergenerational relationships between different forms of family violence were identified. Analyses demonstrated weak to moderate associations across multiple forms of violence within generations. Only weak support was found … Read More »

Date:

March 2004

This paper reports a quantitative study of the genocide in the prefecture of Kibuye in western Rwanda in 1994. It uses a database produced from a house-to-house survey of victims by the organization of genocide survivors, Ibuka. For a total of 59,050 victims of the genocide, data were collected on … Read More »

Date:

March 2004

This paper reports on a new approach to valuing crime based on the “willingness-to-pay” (WTP) concept, using the “contingent valuation” (CV) methodology developed in the environmental economics literature. The study found that the typical household would be willing to pay between $100 and $150 per year for crime prevention programs … Read More »

Date:

February 2004

This study aimed to provide preliminary estimates on proclivity to elder abuse and to determine the efficacy of the intergenerational transmission of violence and ecological theories in predicting elder abuse in contemporary Chinese societies. A total of 464 (225 males and 239 females) Chinese residing in Hong Kong completed questionnaires … Read More »

Date:

September 2003

An unselected sample of 543 children was followed over 20 years to test the independent effects of parenting, exposure to domestic violence between parents (ETDV), maltreatment, adolescent disruptive behavior disorders, and emerging adult substance abuse disorders (SUDs) on the risk of violence to and from an adult partner. Conduct disorder … Read More »

Date:

August 2003

Wilkinson studies 125 violent African American and Latino males aged 16 to 24 in New York City, analyzing 306 violent situations of which 151 involve guns. The social world of these youths is characterized by violence, internalized street codes, limited opportunities, and the availability of firearms. Violent events are public … Read More »

Date:

June 2003

Although the relation between TV-violence viewing and aggression in childhood has been clearly demonstrated, only a few studies have examined this relation from childhood to adulthood, and these studies of children growing up in the 1960s reported significant relations only for boys. The current study examines the longitudinal relations between … Read More »

Date:

March 2003

Recognizing the need to better measure both the scope of the problem of intimate partner violence (IPV) as well as resulting economic costs-in particular, those related to health care-Congress funded the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to conduct a study to obtain national estimates of the occurrence of … Read More »

Date:

March 2003

Little research has investigated the victimization costs posed by habitual offenders. The current study seeks to fill this void using a cohort of 500 adult career criminals. The group amassed 29,882 arrests including 58 murders, 201 rapes, 55 kidnappings, 405 armed robberies, and 1101 aggravated assaults; 2801 felony convictions, and … Read More »

Date:

January 2003

This report is the first comprehensive review of violence on a global scale. Chapter 5 provides detailed information on elder abuse. … Read More »

Date:

October 2002

The World Health Organization launched the first World report on violence and health on October 3rd, 2002. Since then, more than 30 governments have organized national launches or policy discussions about the Report, and resolutions endorsing the Report and calling for its implementation have been passed in a number of … Read More »

Date:

October 2002

In one of the most detailed studies of the issue to date, research sponsored by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) found that childhood abuse and neglect increased the odds of future delinquency and adult criminality overall by 29 percent. When data were initially checked in 1988, the average age … Read More »

Date:

February 2001

Violence and its associated factors are complex and multidimensional. The present chapter will consider only one of many perspectives from which to examine violence: the impact of violence and fear on the development of the child. More specifically, violence-related neurodevelopmental changes and functional consequences of these alterations in the brain … Read More »

Date:

January 2001

Inner-city black America is often stereotyped as a place of random violence, but in fact, violence in the inner city is regulated through an informal but well-known code of the street. This unwritten set of rules—based largely on an individual’s ability to command respect—is a powerful and pervasive form of … Read More »

Date:

September 2017

This study reports on the development of a structured interview, My Exposure to Violence (My ETV), that was designed to assess child and youth exposure to violence. Eighty participants between the ages of 9 and 24 were assessed. Data from My ETV were fit to a Rasch model for rating … Read More »

Date:

February 1998

Childhood trauma has profound impact on the emotional, behavioral, cognitive, social and physical functioning of children. Developmental experiences determine the organizational and functional status of the mature brain. The impact of traumatic experiences on the development and function of the brain are discussed in context of basic principles of neurodevelopment. … Read More »

Date:

December 1995

Assessed the occurrence of three types of stressful life events among African- American and Hispanic children living in urban neighborhoods, and examined the concurrent and prospective relations between stressful life events and adjustment. Younger children and children living in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods experienced more stressful life events. Stressful life … Read More »

Date:

June 1994

OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to examine social and psychological factors associated with the use and nonuse of violence among Black adolescents living in a community with a high level of violent crime. METHODS. Adolescents (n = 225, 44% male) 11 to 19 years of age living in or … Read More »

Date:

April 1994

This report summarizes a program of study on African-American children and violence conducted by a comprehensive community mental health center on the southside of Chicago. The research, which looked at exposure to violence, self-reports of aggression, and possible interventions, grew out of: (1) an awareness of the enormous amount of … Read More »

Date:

September 2017

Despite widespread belief that violence begets violence, methodological problems substantially restrict knowledge of the long-term consequences of childhood victimization. Empirical evidence for this cycle of violence has been examined. Findings from a cohort study show that being abused or neglected as a child increases one’s risk for delinquency, adult criminal … Read More »

Date:

April 1989

The belief that abused children are likely to become abusive parents is widely accepted. The authors review the literature cited to support this hypothesis and demonstrate that its unqualified acceptance is unfounded. Mediating factors that affect transmission are outlined and the findings of several investigations are integrated to estimate the … Read More »

Date:

April 1987

The comparative crime data file utilized in this study was assembled over a three-year period. For the purposes of this study, postwar rather than wartime homicide rates were analyzed, since postwar data appear much less problematic and are likely to be affected by artifacts in only a conservative direction. The … Read More »

Date:

December 1976

The first section of this text provides an overview of the main problems and theories of deviance and examines the central questions about deviant behavior and the ways in which sociologists have answered them. The social learning theory of deviant behavior is then introduced. The remainder of the book then … Read More »

Date:

January 1973

The 9 formal propositions in which sutherland expressed his revision of the differential association theory of criminal behavior are analyzed in terms of behavior theory and reformulated as 7 new propositions. This modification subsidiary is considered to the more urgent task of: (1) making explicit the learning process as now … Read More »

Date:

October 1966

In a previous study (see 37: 856) children imitated the behavior of a model in the presence of the model. The present study investigated the degree of imitation when the model was not present. Degree to which like-sexed model behavior would be followed was also studied. Nursery school children exposed … Read More »

Date:

November 1961

Across the world, violence against women and children poses a high burden on global health. Women and children are particularly susceptible to violence because often they have fewer rights or lack legal protection. Many women and children victims of violence know their perpetrators – often as family members or intimate … Read More »

Date:

September 2017